Branches of Biology (Full list)

These are the main branches of biology:

  • Aerobiology – the study of airborne organic particles
  • Agriculture – the study of producing crops and raising livestock, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
    • Histology – the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Astrobiology (also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy) – the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe
  • Biochemistry – the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biogeography – the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
  • Bioinformatics – the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biomathematics (or Mathematical biology) – the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
  • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
  • Biomedical research – the study of health and disease
    • Pharmacology – the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
  • Biomusicology – the study of music from a biological point of view.
  • Biophysics – the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biosemiotics – the study of biological processes through semiotics, by applying the models of meaning-making and communication
  • Biotechnology – the study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
    • Synthetic biology – research integrating biology and engineering; construction of biological functions not found in nature
  • Building biology – the study of the indoor living environment
  • Botany – the study of plants
  • Cell biology – the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Cognitive biology – the study of cognition as a biological function
  • Conservation biology – the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Cryobiology – the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings
  • Developmental biology – the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    • Embryology – the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth)
  • Ecology – the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Environmental biology – the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
  • Epidemiology – a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
  • Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time
  • Genetics – the study of genes and heredity.
    • Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
  • Hematology (also known as Haematology) – the study of blood and blood-forming organs.
  • Integrative biology – the study of whole organisms
  • Limnology – the study of inland waters
  • Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
    • Bacteriology – the study of bacteria
    • Mycology – the study of fungi
    • Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism
    • Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Nanobiology – the study of how nanotechnology can be used in biology, and the study of living organisms and parts on the nanoscale level of organization
  • Neurobiology – the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
  • Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including
    • Population ecology – the study of how population dynamics and extinction
    • Population genetics – the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms
  • Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
  • Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Psychobiology – the study of the biological bases of psychology
  • Quantum biology – the study of quantum mechanics to biological objects and problems.
  • Sociobiology – the study of the biological bases of sociology
  • Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
  • Zoology – the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior, including:
    • Ethology – the study of animal behavior
    • Entomology – the study of insects
    • Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians
    • Ichthyology – the study of fish
    • Mammalogy – the study of mammals
    • Ornithology – the study of birds